My 40K Globe Experience

As I enter the third week of my 40K globe program with my fellow 5 team members, I couldn’t be more satisfied with my choice to join this incredible organisation for one month. I initially chose to do this program as I love being immersed in new cultures and it encompassed the two key things I want to incorporate into my career; social business and global business. Little did I know how much more of an impact it would have on me other than solidifying what direction I want my career to head.

One of the key things that attracted me to 40K and one of the main things I think that differentiates it is the drive to move away from gift giving and charitable donations to providing people in rural Indian villages with the tools to be self sustainable and self efficient over the long run. Being given the opportunity to aid in this by implementing social impact projects and helping empower those in need, has been one of the best parts of this journey.

I was lucky enough to have been given a project where I could see this happening firsthand and where the values of 40K were really evident. My groups task was to expand the current Halli laptop bag range to a Halli iPad case range, whilst also tackling women’s employment concerns. Our goal was to engage with a new local women, with the aim of providing her with long term employment. This project also identified the scalable nature of the 40K Impact Projects in order to provide a positive impact for as many people as possible. In starting off this project I was able to see firsthand the impact the Halli laptop case range has had on the lives of the two women who are employed on the product. We engaged with Asha and Mangala to make the first prototypes of our iPad cases, and in the process got to hear their stories and better understand the needs of people in rural communities.

Globe.jpg

In our team we constantly strived for a better way with these initial prototype designs and patterns. We tailored our iPad range designs to target both a professional and fashionable demand, to showcase authentic Indian materials and also remain in line with the current laptop range. The design of our new product was created following initial survey results and market research, where we discovered profound interest in adding a front pocket and having a slightly larger size to fit all iPad devices and similar sized tablets. Some things took longer than anticipated in our process but that was largely due to how passionate we all were about the product as we knew success would allow us to make a massive difference to another woman’s life.

Now heading into the final stages of our process we have successfully engaged with a new woman and have employed her to produce our initial 50 prototypes on a casual basis, with the hope of eventually hiring her permanently if our product proves successful. It is clear to all of us that this employment will have a profoundly positive impact, not only on her own life but the lives of her family as well. We are now in the process of finalising designs and liaising with all involved to allow our upcoming pre-sale to go live. We are all extremely excited to get this product to market to see the response from consumers and also to see the impact this has for women’s empowerment in rural India.

Being a part of 40K has really instilled in me how important it is to be good to people and I’ve seen for myself just how rewarding that is. Helping to build lasting positive change is a challenge but it is one that is worth every fail along the way to see the results at the end. I believe that 40K equips you with all the skills necessary for leading a meaningful career and I, along with my team, can’t wait to see all the ideas that generate in the future to tackle similar complex social issues.

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40K Globe: PLEASE DONATE to my campaign to gain better education in rural India.

Hey everyone. I’m headed to India very soon with the amazing 40K Organisation – a leader in social entrepreneurship and sustainable innovation. They build social impact projects in rural communities within India to make lasting change in communities in areas such as employment, food and water access and education. I will be joining them for a 1 month internship where I will be living and working with my amazing group to assist women gain employment and run their own businesses!

I am also fundraising as part of this trip to help improve education. 40K have developed ‘PLUS Pod’ education programs in rural areas that use tablet and android technology, where kids work on digital programs that help improve their English and Maths skills. There are already 9 villages being helped and 226 students being given better educational programs. I am not raising funds for myself to participate in this program. All money goes directly to improving and expanding these PLUS pods to enable more children access to education.

  • $4 will cover the cost of one child’s education for a whole month
  • For $100 you can sponsor a 7 inch android-platform tablet for the PLUS kids
  • $5300 is enough to fund a Pod for a full year!india

Please PLEASE consider making a donation at the link below, no matter how small or large, as it is going to an absolutely incredible cause. We are very fortunate in Australia, and I’m so excited to assist over in India. All donations are tax deductible and I am hoping to raise around $1,500 and would appreciate any help at all.

https://www.40kglobe.com.au/campaigns/help-me-fundraise-to-buy-android-tablets-for-literacy-programs-in-india/

THANKS!

Where Have All The Rhino’s Gone?

“Animal interests count, so deliberate or wanton cruelty is bad, but animal interests are easily overridden by our own interests, especially when it comes to the Rhino and their horns”.

rhino 2

In the early 20th Century the Rhino population was booming throughout Asia and South Africa with an estimated 500 000 worldwide population (Save The Rhino Statistics). Now today only few survive outside of national parks and reserves as rhino have fallen victim to organised crime aimed at poaching them for their horns.

Poaching of this species has increased significantly in the past few years, now with over 90% of their population gone. It is at the point where all of the five remaining rhino species have been “listed on the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Redlist of threatened species, with three out of five species classified as critically endangered” (Save The Rhino). Save The Rhino further highlights that:

“Rhino poaching has reached a crisis point, and if the killing continues at this rate, we could see rhino deaths overtaking births in 2016-2018, meaning rhinos could go extinct in the very near future”.

rhino graph This issue is most prominent within Africa as it is home to the largest number of rhinos. The key motivation for this level of poaching has been to attain their horns, as they are believed to possess medicinal uses and also to be a symbol of wealth, particularly in Asian consumer markets. The main market has most presently become Vietnam where there is a newly emerged belief that rhino horn cures cancer (WWF). The demand for their horns has skyrocketed due to these perceived values and different consumer groups are constantly growing, comprising of people with varying motivations for buying it. The many different motivations that exist provide poachers with an overriding incentive to meet supply with these demand levels, as they will be able to reap the profit benefits from selling them on black markets at very inflated prices.

As seen within the graph above, rhino poaching levels have only dramatically been increasing from around 2012. It is a fairly current issue that has been escalating fiercely and it has required the creation of revitalised tactics and objectives that correlate with these new statistics. This means that many of the campaigns and efforts developed to address this spike in poaching are relatively new and ongoing. Most of these new campaigns are yet to produce much information in regards to their outcomes and how successful they have been.

The links below provide research on three areas of research about rhino poaching and have been linked to different marketing strategies and methods in order to analyse them. In order to understand the potential effectiveness of the future campaigns, some research on other welfare campaigns on the same topics is included to analyse the campaigns further. These areas reflect many of the different stakeholders of this issue, including some of the major wildlife organisations committed to the fight to save Rhino’s, the actual consumer groups of rhino horn and the rhino’s themselves.

BLOG 1 – Companies incorporating animal welfare into their corporate social responsibility programs

BLOG 2 – A mix of current strategies and campaign efforts

BLOG 3 – A mix of potential future solutions

From looking at a number of the different campaigns and future proposals within the links above, the magnitude and severity of the issue is very clear. To conclude from what has been found it seems that no one solution by itself will work. Integrated campaigns and efforts are key to tackling every element of the issue from the consumer markets, to poachers to the illegal trafficking industry. Different marketing channels and consumer behaviour tactics are also essential to these as was seen in the need to change attitudes, raise awareness and reduce demand. The stakeholders involved here predominantly are the rhino’s and for their population to be saved there is a lot of pressure on wildlife organisations and if all these efforts don’t succeed in saving the rhino populations then theorists conclude that “The only long-term hope may lie in the effective protection of small, isolated populations” (Western, 1987), through conservation programs, which would be a very devastating outcome for such an amazing species.

rhino bay

References:

Poaching: The Statistics, Save The Rhino, Viewed 5 June 2015, https://www.savetherhino.org/rhino_info/poaching_statistics

Rhino Population Figures, Save The Rhino, Viewed 6 June 2015, https://www.savetherhino.org/rhino_info/rhino_population_figures

Threats, World Wildlife Foundation, Viewed 5 June 2015, http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/rhino

Western, D 1987, Africa’s elephants and rhinos: Flagships in crisis/ Science Direct, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 343-346

The NBA and The Rhino

One of the key ways in which companies help to tackle issues such as Rhino Poaching is by developing strong CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) policies into their practises. These CSR policies recognise a businesses responsibility to the community that goes beyond what is required by the law. “It is a process with the aim to embrace responsibility for the company’s actions and encourage a positive impact through its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities and stakeholders” (Aprita Maheshkumar, 2013). One company who has utilized these policies in the fight to stop rhino poaching is The NBA (National Basketball Association).

Firstly The NBA has incorporated animal welfare into its global social responsibility program, which aims to reduce the illegal trade of wildlife products in china. This time around they have teamed up with WildAid in an effort to dramatically reduce the consumption of wildlife products in china and Vietnam. They launched a campaign entitled ‘No Hype’, dedicated towards reducing demand for ivory and rhino horn. “ ‘No Hype’ is part of WildAid’s ‘when the buying stops, the killing can too’ campaign led by former NBA star Yao Ming” (WildAid) and the campaign material also featured another six NBA players including Pau Gasol, Tyson Chandler, Al Horford, Serge Ibaka, Thabo Sefolosha and Joakim Noah.

The effort comprised a number of videos and public service announcements, starring a number of NBA players to raise awareness of the poaching issues, which were aired during NBA games and through their entire 2013 playoff season both in the U.S. and in the Asian markets presently driving demand for illegal wildlife products.

In looking to how successful this partnership actually was – there are a number of things that it was able to achieve. Firstly with CSR policies it is crucial that there is some form of fit between the company and the organisations they choose to work with. Research suggests that in order to “maximize cause-related marketing results, the firm should select a cause that is compatible with its identity and is compelling to the firm’s target market (Gupta & Pirsch, 2006). In doing this they put themselves in a better position for resonating with their audiences and it can lead to continuous future success.

In understanding this it appears that The NBA and Wildaid have utilised CSR successfully as two of the key spokesmen for the campaign and video material are from Africa and China. Serge Ibaka is a Congolese citizen from Africa who has seen the poaching first hand and Yao Ming is a Chinese citizen whom is “arguably China’s most famous athlete” (Watson, 2014). Watson (2014) further offers that “Since retiring from the NBA, he has also become a passionate spokesman for the wildlife conservation group WildAid, campaigning to stop the slaughter of elephants and rhinos in Africa”. In reference to his public service announcements and messages it was found that “there was resistance at first, but now it appears many Chinese are listening to the basketball player’s message”, proving that he is resonating with consumers.

Yao Ming, Wild Aid Ambassador and China's NBA star observes Northern White Rhinos at Ol-Pejetta Conservancy in Nanyuki on on August 11, 2012. Yao is in Kenya to film a feature-length documentary called ?The End of the Wild?, to experience the beauty and economic importance of wildlife tourism and to learn how this is threatened by the current elephant and rhino poaching crisis.       AFP PHOTO/STRINGER        (Photo credit should read STR/AFP/GettyImages)

Yao Ming, Wild Aid Ambassador and China’s NBA star observes Northern White Rhinos at Ol-Pejetta Conservancy in Nanyuki on on August 11, 2012.

Lastly with Wildaid teaming up with the NBA it gave them the ability to leverage the popularity of the sport, especially within Chinese markets. Basketball is a global sport and one that has a very large audience base, which enabled them to reach an entirely new audience. They were then able to educate audiences on the threats to the endangered rhino species and work on their goal of reducing demand for rhino horn.

References:

Arpita Maheshkumar, P 2013, “Corporate Social Responsibility”, Golden research thoughts vol. 2 pp. 1

Gupta, S. & Pirsch, J. 2006, “The company-cause-customer fit decision in cause-related marketing”, The Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 314-326.

NBA Cares and WildAid Team Up To Save Endangered Species, NBA, Viewed 4 June 2015, http://www.nba.com/cares/wildaid.html

Watson, I 2014, ‘Former NBA Star Fights Elephants and Rhino Poaching’, Khon2, Viewed 4 June 2015, http://khon2.com/2014/11/30/former-nba-star-fights-elephant-and-rhino-poaching/

Proposed Future Campaigns to Save the Rhino Species

The Convention on the Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) has had in place a ban on the trade of Rhino Horn since 1977. However the ban in recent times is failing because it artificially restricts supply in the face of persistent and growing demand (Biggs et al, 2013). Its presence on the black market has turned it into a commodity that is continually being exploited. Demand levels are the highest they have ever been and they outweigh the supply levels dramatically. The ban is now just limiting supply, raising prices and driving black market poaching. rhino_horn In 1993 a kilogramme sold for around $4,700 – In 2012 it was selling for $65,000 for the equivalent weight. (McGrath, 2013).

In response to this one of the more recent proposals to address rhino poaching that has emerged is to in fact legalise the trade. Biggs et al (2013) state, “The only remaining option is a carefully regulated legal trade based on the humane and renewable harvesting of horn”. The hope is that this would abolish the illegal trade sector, reduce the inflated prices and ultimately reduce demand. The Save the Rhino Foundation has also offered that this approach is something that is heavily being discussed by South Africa. They highlight that if horns can be harvested renewably without causing harm to the animals then it could offer financial incentives for the conservation of rhinos and deliver benefits to local communities. Below is an example of a Rhino whose horn has been harvested renewably. This example is used by researchers to argue that by humanely shaving the horns of live rhinos, enough material could be generated to meet global demand. _66129628_biggs1hr The idea that legalising trade to displace illegal trade, is one that is “commonly advocated by economists who promote market solutions to conservation problems” (IUCN). As this project is currently still in talk and has not yet been properly tested on rhino’s it is hard to predict the success that it could have. Through further research however this idea has been tested quite successfully on crocodiles, which allows some conclusions to be drawn on the potential success of this effort in future actions. It has been found that in legalising crocodile trade there has now been “a very successful legal trade for some time now which has more or less eradicated pressures on wild crocodile populations,” (Biggs et al, 2013). If the same could be done for rhino’s the threat to their species could be dramatically lessened. The research conducted by Biggs et al (2013) further concluded, “We have strong evidence that it works and the crocodile example shows it can work in low income countries and those without a strong governance structure.” This idea remains to be debated among many scientists and animal foundations, but is starting to gain more and more momentum, as simply heightening law enforcement and penalties for poaching is not working on their own to avoid extinction.

Looking to the future from a marketing and consumer behaviour perspective I also find that this offers success for reducing demand in a successful way as it is not completely trying to erase rhino horn from these consumer markets. The Asian consumers in the market are key stakeholders within this issue, as rhino horn to them has become an important element of their traditions and customs and therefore efforts to address this need to respect their culture. It is essential to focus more on changing attitudes towards the products and conveying that there are more ethical ways to obtain them. Save the Rhino foundation finds that “Public awareness campaigns will also have a vital role changing attitudes and increasing public understanding of the damaging effects of illegal wildlife consumption”. Attitude change does not occur instantly but if this trade is legalized, the price will drop and consumers will start to stop seeing it as such a valuable commodity.

The big question now according to Save the Rhino is “what combination of approaches should we adopt to ensure that rhino numbers and rhino population numbers continue to grow?”. In today’s more diverse and advanced consumer markets marketers now “recognise the power and efficiency of taking a holistic approach to engaging consumers”, meaning the most effective route for the future will not be focusing on one simple avenue to stop the crisis but conjoining different strategies and tactics to target as many consumer/poachers/organisations as possible. This will deploy a more harmonic and strategic plan that is incorporating many different aspects all focused towards tackling the crucial supply and demand levels.

References:

Biggs, D & CourChamp, F & Martin, R & Possingham, HP 2013, ‘Rhino Poaching: Supply and Demand Uncertain – Response’, Science, no. 6137, pp. 1168-1169

Liodice, B. 2008, “ESSENTIALS FOR INTEGRATED MARKETING”, Advertising Age, vol. 79, no. 23, pp. 26.

McGrath, M 2013, Rhino Horn: Time to Legalise the Trade Researchers Say, BBC, Viewed 5 June 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-21615280

Tackling the Demand for Rhino Horn, Save The Rhino, Viewed 6 June 2015, https://www.savetherhino.org/rhino_info/thorny_issues/tackling_the_demand_for_rhino_horn

Current Campaigns to Save the Rhino Species

The fight to save the rhino population from extinction is an ongoing battle that requires drastic attention to combat the unprecedented spike in poaching levels. The issue is not singularly about poaching but is also part of a “global illicit trafficking network that is empowering violent groups and co-opting some elements of Africa’s security sector (Anderson et al, 2014). In response organisations have embarked on many different types of campaigns to address this.

SaveRhinosLogo_Blk

Social marketing is one area that plays a huge part in the initiatives currently being put into action by different foundations and organizations. These practices are focused on “influencing human behavior on a large scale, using marketing principles for the purpose of societal benefit rather than commercial profit” (Smith, 2000). One of the key starting points for these types of campaigns is uncovering the already existing attitudes and behaviors towards a certain issue. It also aims to uncover people’s awareness levels of the consequences of the issue or behavior. This is done to ensure campaigns designed to change this are correctly targeted.

The WildAid foundation is one organization that has generated one of these campaigns to lower rhino horn demand. In 2012 they conducted interviews in three major Chinese cities “to better understand awareness and attitudes toward rhino conservation, and to identify the behaviours and beliefs of rhino horn consumers”. The findings of these interviews were then used to inform their 2013 campaign strategy. The goals generated for their campaign were to “raise awareness of the rhino poaching crisis, support lawmakers and increase enforcement efforts in China, and ultimately reduce demand for rhino horn”. In 2014 the surveys used were readministered to assess any behaviour/attitude changes that had occurred since the starts of their efforts and the results were very promising, which can be seen below.

  1. Awareness that horns come from poached wild rhinos increased by 51.5% to 50% in 2014 from 33% of respondents in 2012.
  2. Our 2014 survey showed a 23.5% reduction in the belief that rhino horn has a medicinal effect, falling from 58.2% in 2012 to 44.5% in 2014.
  3. Of participants who do not buy rhino horn, 95% said the Chinese government should
    take stricter action to prevent the use of rhino horns. Even 87% (compared to 72% in 2012) of those who purchase rhino horns agreed with stricter restrictions.
  4. More than 90% of interviewees think poaching poses a serious (or very serious) threat
    to rhinos, compared to 74% in 2012. The increase was most pronounced in Beijing, where awareness of the seriousness of poaching grew from 6.1% to 54%.
  5. More than 92% (90% in 2012) of all respondents believe that trade in rhino horn is illegal.40% of participants interviewed in 2014 had watched PSAs featuring ambassadors Yao Ming or Jackie Chan and 90.9% of those said they wouldn’t buy rhino horn after viewing the PSAs.
  6. In 2014, 44.4% of residents cited seeing graphic images of poached rhinos as the most effective way to persuade consumers to end their ivory consumption.
    (WildAid)

The results from this campaign showed highly positive results and showed great hope for the future. To understand why this campaign was so successful it is essential to look at concepts of marketing methods. Firstly they administered prior research to their campaign to understand their starting points and were effectively able to understand what they needed to focus on to make the biggest impact. They further measured the success of their efforts along the way, which is one of the most crucial things to do for any marketing campaign. It allowed them to assess the changes that had so far occurred and understand what, if anything, they needed to change.

One other key area in which other campaigns are focused in Africa is the Kruger National Park, which is home to the vast majority of Africa’s rhino. rhino krugerThe most current of these campaigns also reflects the social marketing ideas talked about above. The aim is to reshape the demand for rhino horn through new public education and awareness strategies.

Anderson et al (2014), highlight that this current plan has strong potential based on previous plans to tackle the high demand for shark fin soup across Asia, which “has been dramatically lowered through effective social marketing” (Anderson et al, 2014). To ensure the success of this it is further reflected that resonant messaging is needed, consistent engagement and also high profile campaigners that an audience will resonate with.

                                                                                   So far the success in Kruger National Park and Africa in general has stemmed largely from increases in arrest numbers of rhino arrest graphpoachers. Larger patrols have been enforced and more resources have been gained from air services, the army, the air
force and canines and “While poaching numbers at Kruger have continued to rise, the pace is 22 percent lower than had been projected” (Anderson et al, 2014).This now means looking at new options to tackle demand more urgently as these number are still rising and some rhino species are very close to extinction.

References:

Anderson, B. & Jooste, J. 2014, ‘Wildlife Poaching: Africa’s Surging Trafficking Threat’, Africa Security Briefs, no. 28, pp. 1-8.

Smith, W 2000, ‘Social marketing: an evolving definition’, American Journal of Health Behavior, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 11-17.

WildAid 2014, Rhino Horn Demand 2012-2014, WildAid, Viewed June 5 2015, http://www.wildaid.org/sites/default/files/resources/Rhino%20Horn%20Report_Final_v2.pdf

Being Classically Conditioned

Firstly to define- classical conditioning “is one form of learning in which an organism “learns” through establishing associations between different events and stimuli” (Alleydog). It was first proposed by Ian Pavlov in his attempt to condition dogs to associate the sound of a bell with treats when it rang. In this example the bell is the conditioned stimulus and in practice this can relate to just about anything that will produce a conditioned response.

When talking about classical conditioning in marketing, I usually think of positive associations and feelings such as the thought of food when seeing the McDonalds’ arches or the feeling of smelling like celebrities who endorse certain perfumes, but what I hadn’t really thought of was the idea of conditioning negative associations between products such as the outcomes of smoking and drugs.

Being classically conditioned to smoke is an ongoing issue in society as so many smokers have been conditioned either by emotions, situations, places etc. to want to smoke at this time. It is said that this conditioning happens “because nicotine goes to a part of the brain that give extra attention to external events. So when you smoke, you are more aware of what is happening at the same time. If you do the same thing many times while smoking the brain now expects to receive nicotine when you do this activity again, every time” (Stop Smoking, 2008). Lazev et al (1999) further highlight that these cues elicit further smoking, and for those who have quit smoking, these cues often precipitate relapse.

Tobacco company’s do little to help combat this due to their commercial goals and strategies as can be seen below.

This video by ‘Tobacco free Florida’ exemplifies how tobacco companies use classical conditioning in order to sell their products. They associate them as seen in the video with things such as the status of being a hardworking individual, show that you will look cool, appear independent, mysterious and beautiful etc. They try to incorporate strong emotional appeals into their advertising to condition people to think that if they are smoking then this is what they will be like.

What companies and initiatives like ‘Tobacco free Florida’ aim to do is combat this conditioning with conditioning of their own in relation to the negative outcomes of tobacco use as was seen at the very end of the video. I find that this type of classical conditioning reflects the many different social marketing campaigns and efforts that are seen today. “Social marketing seeks to influence social behaviours not to benefit the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society” (Weinreich Communications). This is reflected in the abundance of different smoking campaigns that have been generated today in an attempt to educate people about the negative and life threatening effects that ensue. They aim to reduce smoking in order to give people a healthier, longer life.

In linking this to classical conditioning- the shocking and quite graphic images that are shown within these ads and campaigns teach the audience to associate these outcomes and side effects with the act of smoking. Some have emotional appeals while others aim to scare consumers with their graphic, shocking photos as seen below.

smokekid smokeThey aim to change consumption behaviour and this is becoming increasingly more critical as “Worldwide, tobacco use causes nearly 6 million deaths per year, and current trends show that tobacco use will cause more than 8 million deaths annually by 2030” (Centre for disease control and prevention). I find that classical conditioning will continue playing a huge part in efforts to reduce stats like this and social marketing campaigns will continue to educate the community to generate a healthier world.

References:

Classical Conditioning, Alleydog, Viewed 23 May 2015, http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Classical%20Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Can Keep You Smoking, 2008, Stop Smoking,Viewed 23 May 2015, http://stopsmokingstayquit.blogspot.com.au/2008/08/classical-conditioning-can-keep-you.html

Diseases and Death, 2015, Centre For Disease Control and Prevention, Viewed 23 May 2015, http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/index.htm#toll

Lazev, Amy B, Herzog, Thaddeus ABrandon & Thomas H 1999, Classical Conditioning of Environmental Cues to Cigarette Smoking, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology,  Vol 7. pp. 56-63

Weinreich, N 2006, What is Social Marketing, Weinreich Communications, Viewed 23 May 2015, http://www.social-marketing.com/whatis.html